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Emotional Intelligence and Everyday Life
by Joseph V. Ciarrochi, Joseph P. Forgas, John D. Mayer

I am looking forward to seeing what is inside this book. Because Jack Mayer is one of the editors of it, I expect it will be a good one. The book is being promoted as the "first book to provide a serious, comprehensive review of the field and the ways in which EI is important to everyday life". It will be very interesting to see how the many authors address the exaggerated and unfounded claims made in the 1995 and 1998 books by Goleman. While the topics are similar to those covered by Goleman, I expect this to indeed be a much more serious, scholarly and credible book. My hope is that it will also be one which will serve to offset the many misleading, confusing, and exploitative uses of the term "emotional intelligence," and one which will help keep the field of serious EI research and application alive and well.

Steve Hein
May 2001

December 2001 Update -

The book did not live up to my high expectations. I will write more about this later but for now I will refer you to my editorial which discusses my concerns with the book, among several other concerns, if you are interested.

Full text copy of Introductory Chapter

Table of Contents

Full text copy of Chapter 3

Excerpts from Chatper 6 - Emotional Intelligence and Intimate Relationships.... by Julie Fitness


Note: The book should be available around June/July. Amazon is taking orders for it now. Evidently it wil be released in both hardcover and paperback.


Intro. Chapter

My thanks to the authors for their permission to post this introduction to their upcoming book. I believe they made this available to me before they made it available anywhere else, so for that I am especially appreciative. Since this is a pre-publication draft, this version may contain small errors or may vary slightly from the final, corrected, published version.


Emotional Intelligence and Everyday Life:
An Introduction

John Mayer, Joesph Ciarrochi, Joesph Forgas (1)

Few areas of psychology have generated so much popular interest as emotional intelligence (EI). In the last five years, the topic of EI has been a topic of best-selling books, magazines and newspaper articles. It has also been the topic of considerable scientific research. Why is there all this excitement? There are several explanations for the interest in EI. One explanation is that EI somehow fits the zeitgeist -- the intellectual spirit -- of the times. A persistent theme of contemporary life is that we can solve technical problems far better than human problems. The promise of EI is that it might help us solve at least one aspect of human problems, namely, conflict between what one feels and what one thinks. A second, everyday explanation for the interest in EI is that the EI concept implies (to some) that people without much academic ability might still be highly successful in life if they are high in EI. Another reason for its popularity may be that the concept provides critics of traditional intelligence tests with ammunition to attack those tests (after all, one might not need traditional intelligence to succeed). And finally, journalists and writers have written lively, popular accounts of EI and its potential role in everyday life. Such accounts have challenged the view that human nature involves a continuous conflict between head and heart. Moreover, they have led people to believe that EI may make us healthy, rich, successful, loved, and happy. Such bold and important claims need to be evaluated scientifically. This is what our book sets out to do.

A Dialogue About Human Nature

Beginning in the 20th century, psychologists began to insert themselves into the debate on human nature. They helped inform political scientists about why people vote in certain ways; informed aeronautical engineers about how to design the cockpit of airplanes, and informed computer scientists on the ways that people think. Most relevant here, they also began to tell psychotherapists and others about how people felt, and what those feelings meant.

Pronouncements about why people do the things they do, and the nature of human nature, long predates psychology, of course. As our species evolved tens of thousands of years ago, homo sapiens must have found themselves increasingly self-aware of a largely mysterious and unpredictable world. This self-awareness prompted them to develop language and culture to communicate information about life and existence. From the earliest times, philosophers, political leaders, and religious prophets have provided greatly-sought (and sometimes, forcibly imposed) directions on how life should be lived. From Ancient Greece, came political philosophy and the invention of democracy. From China, came a code of family life evolved in the form of Confucianism. From the Middle East came monotheism and the commandments of Moses.

The forms of government, the religions, and the moralities in use today are descendants of earlier systems of thought. In general, those systems that survived and flourished, did so in part, because they worked. Thoughts evolve as well as organisms, and only those systems of thinking survived that were useful enough to assist with daily living. When the expertise is completely wrong, it is de-emphasized and eventually ignored. The conversation between the experts and audience flourishes when experts are helpful, and vanishes when they are not. We can see the process today: Communism's view of humanity as "economic man" was simply too restrictive, too simplistic to properly channel human energy. Its followers finally brought about its demise. On a smaller scale, the members of isolated suicide cults die off because their own self-destruction makes it finally impossible to further spread their message. Emotional intelligence has attracted the attention of the public because it suggests that emotions convey sensible meaning, which requires understanding.

The Dialogue about Feeling

To add to the larger debates on governance, religion, and morality, experts also developed theories of how people should feel. The ancient Greek Stoics argued that thinking was reliable, but that feelings were too subjective, idiosyncratic, and unreliable to be used in constructive ways by society. Although stoicism failed as a movement, its central tenets influenced the Judaism of the time to a slight degree and, to a greater degree, particularly, the then-emerging tenets of Christianity. The stoic ideas were therefore conveyed through the branches of some religions. Centuries later, the rational, scholarly, and empirical emphasis of the European enlightenment appeared to further discredit emotionality. There were some rebellions against this trend, including the European romantic movement, in which artists, writers, and philosophers argued for the importance of feeling and of following one's heart.

Just a few decades ago, when many contemporary emotions researchers were coming of age, the political rebellions of the 1960's also placed a high value on the emotions. For example, in the United States, then Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara referred to himself as a "human computer" who would not let emotion interfere with his thoughts about the War in Vietnam. In contrast, demonstrators against the war followed their feelings of sympathy toward innocent people who were dying, and anger at a government that was responsible for those deaths, and, perhaps, fear at having to serve in an unpopular war. They believed that the cold, computer like arguments of people like Robert MacNamara were being used to disparage those feelings. Whatever the merits of their argument, the debate was often characterized as one of reason against feeling. There was little recognition that thought and feeling could be integrated.

The Advent of Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence is the latest development in understanding the relation between reason and emotion. Unlike earlier ideas, its unique contribution is to see thought and emotion as adaptively, intelligently, intertwined. Whereas Blaise Pascal wrote, famously, that "The heart has its reasons of which reason knows not," the concept of emotional intelligence suggests the two may not be so far apart as supposed.

As with past developments in the view of human nature, there is an interplay between the experts in the field, and those who are interested in using the knowledge for more practical purposes. Today, EI two worlds: the world of popular psychology, with its best-selling volumes on co-dependence, personality types, the healing of the soul, and jazzy newspaper science, on the one hand, and the world of careful, painstaking research science, on the other. This intersection creates a rather uneasy tension at times, and often misleading cross-talk.

The scientist says, "Here is what I have been working on recently..."The journalist replies, "This is really important," and then jazzes up the story in a way that seems close to lunacy: "Emotional intelligence is twice as important as IQ!" (This often-made, often-repeated claim cannot be substantiated, as is pointed out in a number of chapters of this volume).

Readers think the idea is important, and follow the journalistic reports closely. Seeing this, the scientist thinks, "people are interested in what I do (even if they don't quite get it). I'll give them more..." and then proceeds to write a carefully analytic piece that might be, however, off the topic, or so advanced as to be unfathomable to non-psychologists (Much of EI writing really isn't about EI, as several authors note in their chapters).

At the same time, this intersection between the scientific and popular world can lead to genuine collaboration between the scientist and the public, but only if the scientist cares enough to write clearly, and if the interested reader is motivated to think critically.

The Rationale For this Book

In the past few years, people have expressed a strong desire for information about EI, as is shown by the proliferation of popular books, and magazine and newspaper articles. Scientists have also become fascinated by the topic; there has been a marked increase in serious research within the area. We were motivated to develop this edited volume in response to the curiosity about the concept, and the availability of new information about it in the scientific literature.

In this volume, we have invited internationally renowned scientists and scientific practitioners to present their views and scientific findings related to EI. We have asked them to write in an accessible, accurate, and informative fashion, so that people from a wide variety of disciplines and walks of life can easily understand the book.. We have asked them to keep their footnotes and citations to a minimum (although you will still find the most important references you need to other important works in the area). The result is a collection of essays that are frequently worthwhile and informative, often provocative, and sometimes (we think) wonderful.

The essays address: Why are experts now saying EI exists? What is the concept, and what does it mean? What does it say about aspects of our everyday life, including our health, economic decisions, relationships, and ability to have a successful career? This book explains what is known about each of those questions.

Book's Contents

People approaching the area of emotional intelligence do so with different interests, needs, and agendas. The chapters of this book will no doubt appeal in different ways to different readers. To spare the reader the effort of striking out at random, we will introduce briefly the authors and chapters of this volume. This should help readers find what is closest to what they are looking for.

Part I: Fundamental Issues

The first part of the book is a general introduction to the field of emotional intelligence and its study. It introduces some of the concepts, measures, and research underlying the general study of EI.

John (Jack) D. Mayer, along with another contributor to this volume, Peter Salovey, have published a number of articles on EI, including what may be the first theoretical integration and measurement instrument in the field, in 1990. Dr. Mayer recounts some of that history in Chapter 1, "A Field Guide to Emotional Intelligence." He sorts out some of the interweaving of popular and scientific psychology, to provide a field guide of what's what in defining emotional intelligence, measuring it, and what the significance of the field might ultimately be. If you are new to the area, or unfamiliar with the different meanings of emotional intelligence, or the history of the area, this chapter is a good place to start.

When the first emotional intelligence scales were introduced, Joseph Ciarrochi, Amy Chan, Peter Caputi, and Richard Roberts, were among the first researchers to begin studying the available scales, and to publish articles on what they saw the scales as actually measuring. They served as important critics of the field of emotional intelligence measurement. After all, what good is a scientific concept if it can't be measured? In Chapter 2, "Measuring Emotional Intelligence," they examine a variety of psychological tests that have been developed to measure emotional intelligence, all of which are quite different from one another. Here, they pool their collective knowledge and talents to provide a state-of-the art look at what measures of emotional intelligence tell us today. Their chapter critically evaluates the EI tests and describes the strengths and weaknesses of each.

The field of emotional intelligence was strongly influenced by several related fields. One of these was the psychological study of "cognition and affect," or, how emotions and thoughts interact. Joseph Forgas has been a central contributor to that field, and his "Handbook of cognition and emotion," summarized much of that field. In Chapter 3, "Affective Intelligence: the Role of Affect in Social Thinking and Behavior," Dr. Forgas describes processes that contribute to and detract from high EI. For example, he describes how emotions progress over time and how we tend to overestimate how long negative emotions last. Drawing on his knowledge of cognition and affect, he also describes an important, unexpected finding: the more we try to reason about something, the more our irrelevant moods will bias our thoughts. His chapter describes a number of other ways that emotions influence our thinking and behaviour, and presents a model of these influences.

Part II: Applications of Emotional Intelligence Research to Everyday Life

The second part of the book examines how EI applies to clinical psychopathology, to education, to interpersonal relationships, to work, to health and finances, and to psychological well-being.

In clinical psychology and psychiatry, there exist a number of scientific and clinical concepts that are closely related to emotional intelligence. Among the most important of these is the clinical syndrome of Alexithymia. Alexithymia means "without emotion words." ("a": without; "lexi": words; "thymia": emotions). Graeme Taylor is among the leading researchers on that condition which overlaps, in important ways, with lower levels emotional intelligence. In Chapter 4, "Low Emotional Intelligence and Mental Illness," Dr. Taylor provides a comprehensive review of Alexithymia research and shows how it may contribute to the development of problems in interpersonal relationships and in coping with distressing emotions and stressful life events. He also provides evidence for the important link between Alexithymia and psychiatric disorders (e.g., substance abuse and eating disorders).

Reuven Bar-on began his psychological career studying well-being, and the many personality dimensions related to it such as self-regard, reality perception, and stress tolerance. He developed a scale to measure those attributes, the current version of which, the Bar-On Eqi is now a frequently used measure of the Emotional Quotient (EQ). His chapter 5, "Emotional Intelligence and Self-Actualization", describes his own approach to measuring EI. He then reviews evidence that suggests that EI is essential for realizing one's full potential in life.

All of us enjoy the pleasures and suffer the pains of interpersonal relations. Julie Fitness has devoted her career to studying the role of emotions in long term relationships and marriage. In Chapter 6, "Emotional Intelligence and Intimate Relationships," she discusses ways in which EI may be essential to maintaining a strong, healthy relationship. She also argues, however, that emotional intelligence may not be enough for a happy relationship: such intelligence could be used to manipulate and hurt the partner. Dr. Fitness then discusses the values and beliefs that are necessary in combination with EI to create and maintain happy, long-term relationships.

Interpersonal relations begin with a "getting to know you" period. Judith Flury and William Ickes have been conducting cutting edge research on people's ability to read the thoughts and emotions of others. In Chapter 7, "Emotional Intelligence and Empathy," they discuss the scientific findings relating EI to friendship and dating relationships. They also describe research which suggests that being emotionally intelligent sometimes means deliberately not trying to know how the other person feels. In other words, sometimes delusions may be as necessary to our happiness as realities.

Educators have expressed a tremendous interest in emotional intelligence. Maurice Elias is an eminent scholar in education and a major force in bringing emotional intelligence into educational contexts. [See my critical review of Elias' work-- S.Hein] In Chapter 8, "Emotional Intelligence and Education," he and his colleagues, Lisa Hunter and Jeffrey Kress, discuss the wide range of social and emotional learning (SEL) programs that have been implemented in schools and how some of these programs have brought about a number of positive changes in student's lives (better academics, less aggression and drug usage). Dr. Elias and his colleagues' chapter is essential reading to educators and parents and anyone who is interested in how EI can be taught.

There has been a great deal of popular interest in how emotional intelligence can be applied to the business world. David Caruso is not only a trained intelligence researcher, and co-developer of some central measures of emotional intelligence, but also has served as an executive coach in the business world. He and his business colleague, Mr. Charles Wolfe, describe the ways in which emotional intelligence is essential to success in the work place, making liberal use of examples. In Chapter 8, "Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace," they describe how emotional intelligence is relevant to selecting and developing a career, and how EI can help people deal effectively with co-workers. The chapter further discusses how EI assessment can be integrated with other forms of assessment to provide people with feedback about their strengths and weaknesses. The chapter concludes with a blueprint for an EI training program within the workplace.

Peter Salovey co-developed the theory of emotional intelligence with John D. Mayer in the early 1990's and has continued work in the field since that time. In Chapter 10, "Applied emotional intelligence: regulating emotions to become healthy, wealthy, and wise?", he examines how EI may contribute both to our health and our wealth. He shows that the inability to manage emotions effectively can lead to health problems such as heart disease. Dr. Salovey also shows how poor management of negative emotions can lead to disastrous financial decisions. His chapter is rich with illustrations of how using better emotional and cognitive strategies may lead us to more fulfilling lives.

Part III: Integration and Conclusion

Robert J. Sternberg occupies a unique position in intelligence research today, as both insider and as critic. The developer of such concepts as practical intelligence and creative intelligence, he has also served as an outspoken commentator on the field of intelligence, its foibles, and its promise. In the course of doing so, he has edited the most significant volumes in intelligence research, including, perhaps most centrally, the "Handbook of Intelligence." In the commentary chapter, Chapter 11, "Measuring the intelligence of an idea: how intelligent is the idea of emotional intelligence?", Dr. Sternberg surveys the emotional intelligence area and examines its contributions to traditional intelligence research. He evaluates whether the idea of EI is "correct" or is consistent with available evidence, whether EI is novel and appropriate in accomplishing what it is supposed to, and the practical usefulness of EI in understanding important life outcomes. Dr. Sternberg's comments tie together much that is in the book. In addition, the historical and scientific perspective he lends makes his chapter an important contribution in its own right.

Together, these articles represent a diversity of approaches, disciplinary outlooks, and perspectives on the concept of EI. The field of EI is still in its early stages; nonetheless we are confident that each of the approaches represented in this volume will inform the reader about what EI is and how it may be important to all aspects of everyday life.


Table of Contents -

Short Version

Expanded Version


Table of Contents - Short version (From Amazon.com)

I. Introduction

Emotional Intelligence and Everyday Life: An Introduction.... by J. Mayer, J. Ciarrochi and J. Forgas

II. Fundamental Issues

A Field Guide to Emotional Intelligence.... by J. Mayer

Measuring Emotional Intelligence.... by J. Ciarrochi, A. Chan, P. Caputi, and R. Roberts

Affective Intelligence: The Role of Affect in Social Thinking and Behavior.... by J. Forgas

III. Applications of Emotional Intelligence Research to Everyday Life

Low Emotional Intelligence and Mental Illness.... by G. Taylor

Emotional Intelligence and Self-Actualization.... by R. Bar-On

Emotional Intelligence and Intimate Relationships.... by J. Fitness

Emotional Intelligence and Empathy.... by J. Flury and William Ickes

Emotional Intelligence and Education.... by M. Elias, L. Hunter, and J. Kress

Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace.... by D. Caruso and C. Wolfe

Applied Emotional Intelligence: Regulating Emotions to Become Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise.... by P. Salovey

IV. Integration and Conclusions

Measuring the Intelligence of an Idea: How Intelligent is the Idea of Emotional Intelligence.... by R. Sternberg


Table of Contents - Expanded Version (Provided by J. Ciarrochi)


Emotional Intelligence and Everday Life: An introduction
John (Jack) Mayer, Joseph Ciarrochi
	A dialogue about human nature
	The diologue about feelings
	The advent of emotional intelligence
	The rationale for this book
	The book's contents
		Part 1: Introduction to Emotional intelligence
		Part 2: Applications of emotional intelligence
Chapter 1
"Which emotional intelligence are we talking about?" and related questions 
 John D. Mayer
	How did the field begin (and how was it popularized)?
	Which emotional intelligence are we talking about?
		Component abilities and skills
		Big divisions of personality inform what "emotional intelligence" ought to denote
	How is emotional intelligence best measured?
		Scales sorted by approach to emotional intelligence
	Is emotional intelligence the most important predictor of success in life?
	Why is emotional intelligence important?
Chapter 2
Measuring Emotional Intelligence 
Joseph Ciarrochi, Amy Chan, Peter Caputi, and Richard Roberts
	Emotional intelligence: Fact or fiction?
	Emotional intelligence and everyday life
	How do we know if we have a good measure of EI?
	Overview of EI tests
	Performance measures of emotional intelligence
		The Multi-Factor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS)
		The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Scale, MSCEIT V. 1.1 and  
			V. 2.0
		Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS)
		Other performance measures of EI
			Measuring emotion expression skill
			Measuring EI in children
	Self-report tests
		The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i)
		TheTrait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS)
		Schutte Self-Report Inventory (SSRI)
		The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20)
		Other self-report measures related to EI
	Disentangling emotional intelligence from other measures
Chapter 3
Affective intelligence: Towards understanding the role of affect in social thinking and behaviour 
Joseph Forgas
	Emotional thought: sometimes, intelligent, sometimes not?
	Affect and predicting the future
	Affect infusion: feeling good, and thinking good
	Affect infusion into memory and judgments
	A paradoxical effect: thinking more increases affect infusion?
	Affect and thinking styles
	Feeling bad-but thinking carefully?
	Affect and eyewitness memory
	Coping with stress and the "neurotic cascade"
	Affect infusion and behaviour
	Asking nicely? Affective influences on requesting
	Affect and persuasion
	Feeling good and getting your way? Affect infusion into bargaining behaviors
	Individual differences in affect infusion
	Towards an integration: the affect infusion model
	Summary and conclusions
Chapter 4
Low emotional intelligence and mental illness 
Graeme Taylor
	Overview of the Alexithymia construct
	Alexithymia as low emotional intelligence
	Alexithymia and maladaptive coping
	Alexithymia and psychiatric disorders
		Substance use disorders
		Eating disorders
		Somatorfom Disorders
		Anxiety and depressive disorders
		Borderline personality disorders
	Implications for treatment and prevention
Chapter 5
Emotional Intelligence and Self-Actualization
Reuven Bar-On
	The historical roots of emotional intelligence and self-actualization
		Emotional intelligence
		Self Actualization
	Definitions of emotional intelligence and self-actualization
		Emotional intelligence
	The method used to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-
		The degree of correlation between emotional intelligence and self-actualization
		The ability to distinguish between individuals with higher and lower levels self-
			actualization based on their emotional intelligence
		The ability of emotional intelligegence to predict self actualization
		Findings from additional sources indicating that self-actualization is related to 
			occupational performance
		The connection between self-actualization, wellbeing, and health.
Chapter 6
Emotional intelligence and intimate relationships: marital happiness and stability
Julie Fitness
	What is emotional intelligence?
	Emotion perception and communication in marriage
	Understanding and reasoning about emotions in marriage
	Managing and regulating emotions in marriage
	Is emotional intelligence the key to a successful marriage?
Chapter 7
Emotional intelligence and empathic accuracy in friendships and dating relationships 
Judith Flury and William Ickes
	The ability to infer other people's thoughts and feelings
	Empathic accuracy in friendships and dating relationships
		Knowing each other "From the Inside"
	Characteristics of the perceiver
		Empathic ability
		Attachment orientations
		Communal orientation
	Characteristics of the target
		Consistency and coherence
	Characteristics of the perceiver-target relationship
		Acquaitanceship and intimacy
		Relationship discord
		Relationship vulnerability
	How can empathic accuracy be improved in casual and close relationships?
		Improving the empathic accuracy of strangers
			The effect of exposure and acquaintanceship
			Limitations of the acquaintanceship effect
			Obtaining feedback about the target's thoughts and feelings
		Improving he empathic accuracy of intimates
	What factors can impair empathic accuracy in close realtionships?
	Empathic accuracy: is it good or bad for relationships?
		The rule: empathic accuracy is good for relationships
		The exceptions: when empathic accuracy is bad for relationships
	A theoretical model of how empathic accuracy is "managed" in close relationships
		Empathic accuracy in nonthreatening contexts
		Empathic accuracy in relationship-threatening contexts
Chapter 8
Emotional intelligence and education 
 Maurice J. Elias,  Lisa Hunter, and Jeffrey S. Kress.
	How does emotional intelligence fit into education?
		The state of mental health/prevention in schools
			School-level organizational strategies
			Targeted prevention programs
			Comprehensive health-education programs
			Multi-component prevention strategies
		EI makes a difference in education: four examplary programs
		EI and Academics
		EI and academic "standards"
	Guidines for implementing emotional intelligence/SEL in schools
	School-based applications of SEL: emotional intelligence across domains
		Domain #1: Primary prevention via curriculum-based programs
		Domain #2: Problem behavior prevention: Violence
		Domain #3: Programs for transitions and social support: divorce
		Domain #4: Positive, contributory service
		Schools as learning communities
		Parents must be brought along
Chapter 9
Emotional intelligence in the workplace 
David Caruso and Charles Wolfe
	Emotional intelligence and career development
		What do we know about emotional intelligence and careers?
		How to use emotional intelligence in career development and selection
	Emotional intelligence and training
	Emotional intelligence and management development
		Emotional intelligence coaching
		The right way to do emotional intelligence coaching
			Get their attention
			Determine required competencies
			Emotional intelligence assessment
			Set objectives
			Coaching sessions
	What do we know about emotional intelligence and team leadership?
		How emotional intelligence may be used at work
		Developing emotional intelligence
		Emotional intelligence has a job to do
Chapter 10
Applied emotional intelligence: regulating emotions to become healthy, wealthy, and wise
Peter Salovey
	The salubrious consequences of emotional regulation
		Emotional expression and health outcomes
		Emotional suppression and health outcomes
		Confiding: Might this be the answer?
		Learning to regulate our emotions for better health
		Summing up
	The emotionally intelligent investor: avoiding the pathologies of loss aversion
		Prospect theory
		Refusing to sell at a loss
		Risk-taking when confronted by losses
		The endowment effect: if it's mine it's worth more
		Summing up
Chapter 11
Measuring the intelligence of an idea: How intelligent is the idea of emotional intelligence? 
Robert Sternberg	
	The analytical value of emotional intelligence
	The creative intellectual value of emotional intelligence
	The practical intellectual value of emotional intelligence


1.APA citation is: Mayer, J. D., Ciarrochi, J., & Forgas, J. P. (2001).  Emotional intelligence and everyday life: An introduction.  In J. Ciarrochi, J. P. Forgas, & J. D. Mayer (Eds.)  Emotional Intelligence and Everyday Life (pp.xi-xviii).  New York: Psychology Press.